Calcium         

Calcium is removed from the tightly bound part of the bone to maintain blood levels only when dietary intake is inadequate and the more mobile stores are exhausted. Bone undergoes a constant remodeling process with 20 percent of an adult’s bone calcium re-absorbed and replaced every year.

Muscle contraction
Calcium plays a vital role in muscle contraction. It is also necessary for heartbeat regulation through its effects on heart muscle.

Nervous system
Calcium is essential for nerve impulse conduction. It plays a role in the release of neurotransmitters and activates some enzymes which generate neurotransmitters.

Cardiovascular system and blood
Calcium interacts with sodium, potassium and magnesium to regulate blood pressure and water balance. A major class of drugs used to lower high blood pressure blocks the channels which transport calcium across muscle cell membranes. Calcium also plays a role in the activation of prothrombin (which is formed from vitamin K in the liver) which is essential to the blood clotting process.

Other functions
Calcium is essential for cell division, healthy immune function, for enzyme activity and for the production and activity of hormones involved in digestion, energy and fat metabolism, and the production of saliva. It is also involved in the transport of nutrients and other substances across cell membranes.

Absorption and metabolism
On average, adults absorb around 25 to 50 percent of dietary calcium. Some is absorbed passively while some is transported via a vitamin D-mediated process. Most absorption occurs in the small intestine. The calcium then passes into the exchangeable calcium pool that is in the body fluids. This pool turns over 20 to 30 times a day whereas the calcium in bone turns over every five to six years.

Blood levels of calcium are tightly regulated by the hormones calcitonin, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. These hormones act together to regulate calcium levels as dietary intake and requirements vary. They control absorption from the gut, excretion in the kidney and the rate of bone formation and breakdown. In the absence of vitamin D, less than 10 percent of dietary calcium may be absorbed. When intake is inadequate, calcium is removed from storage sites in bone and used to keep blood levels constant. Other hormones which affect calcium levels include estrogens, glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, insulin and growth hormones.

Absorption is enhanced when calcium intake is low1 and also by moderate exercise. Lactose, vitamin D and adequate (but not excessive) protein improve calcium absorption. High levels of fat reduce absorption. Compounds known as phytates, which are found in dietary fiber; and oxalates, which are found in leafy greens, reduce absorption. The acid environment of the stomach makes calcium salts more soluble, and therefore easier to absorb; and low stomach acid reduces absorption.

Absorption and retention of calcium become less efficient with age,2 partly due to lower estrogen and testosterone levels; and a postmenopausal woman may only absorb 7 percent of her dietary intake. The ability to absorb and retain calcium improves during pregnancy although it seems that some calcium is drawn from bone stores later in pregnancy. A study done in 1996 in Cincinnati showed that breastfeeding stimulates increases in calcium absorption and these increases become apparent after weaning or after menstrual periods restart.3

Smoking, high refined sugar intake, caffeine, alcohol and excess salt promote calcium excretion, thereby increasing the risk of deficiency. High protein diets also increase calcium excretion, particularly if the protein comes from meat.4


Deficiency
Mild calcium deficiency can cause nerve sensitivity, muscle twitching, brittle nails, irritability, palpitations and insomnia. Signs of severe deficiency include abnormal heartbeat, muscle pains and cramps, numbness, stiffness and tingling of the hands and feet, and depression. Children can suffer from rickets, a disease characterized by excessive sweating of the head; slowness in sitting, crawling and walking; insomnia; bone deformities; and growth retardation. In adults, deficiency can lead to osteomalacia with symptoms of bone pain, muscle weakness and delayed healing of fractures.

Those at risk of calcium deficiency include the elderly, people who don’t eat dairy products or other high calcium foods, athletes, those on high protein or high fiber diets, and those who drink a lot of alcohol. High dietary levels of phosphorus cause calcium to be removed from bone and excreted. Phosphorus is found in many common foods such as meat, cheese, processed foods and soda drinks, and people who consume large amount of these foods are at increased risk of calcium deficiency. People on weight-reducing diets are also at risk as they may avoid high calorie foods, which are often good sources of calcium.

Studies have shown that calcium is deficient in the diets of many women. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that the average adult in the US gets only 500 to 700 mg per day. Calcium deficiency is relatively common in many countries.

Osteoporosis
Calcium deficiency contributes to osteoporosis, which literally means "porous bones" and in some cases, can be so severe as to cause the bones to break under the weight of the body. Particularly badly affected bones include the spinal vertebrae, the thigh bone and the radius (shorter arm bone). The symptoms of osteoporosis may be absent until fractures occur, although in some cases there may be back pain.

Osteoporosis is most common in elderly white women with a history of borderline calcium intake. Around 35 percent of women suffer from osteoporosis after menopause and, although it is less common, the problem occurs in a similar way in men. Most of the bone loss seen in osteoporosis occurs in the first five to six years after menopause due to a decline in circulating estrogens and an age-related reduction in vitamin D production.

Good nutrition plays a role in reducing the incidence of osteoporosis by promoting the development of favorable peak bone mass during the first 30 to 40 years of life. Getting enough calcium in early adolescence and early adulthood is vital for bones to reach their maximum density so that they are strong enough to support the body even when they lose density later in life. Studies suggest that calcium intake in adolescence is often below the recommended levels. Researchers involved in a 1994 USDA study measured calcium intake in 51 girls aged 5 to16 years old. They found calcium intake to be below the recommended dietary allowance for 21 out of 25 girls aged 11 or over. These studies suggest that the current calcium intake of American girls during the puberty is not enough to enable bones to develop maximum strength and that increased intakes may be necessary.5

However, it is never too late to slow the bone-loss seen in osteoporosis, and early postmenopausal years are also an important time to ensure optimal intake. A 1997 study done at King’s College Hospital in London suggests that high calcium intakes are linked to bone mineral density in elderly women. Researchers assessed calcium intake in 124 women aged from 52 to 62 and also measured bone mineral density at the spine, hip and foot (os calcis). Results showed that women with high calcium intakes had higher bone mineral density.6

Results from the Rotterdam Study, which involves 1 856 men and 2 452 women aged 55 years and over also show that high calcium intakes also protect against bone loss in men.7

Calcium deficiency is only one factor in osteoporosis. There is likely to be a genetic component and other dietary, behavioral and hormonal factors also play a major part. Adequate intakes of vitamin D, magnesium and boron are also necessary to build healthy bones. Body weight is the factor most linked to bone mineral density and, in women, body fat may be at least as important as muscle in maintaining bone mineral content. Weight-bearing exercise, adequate lifelong calcium intake, and moderate alcohol intake all play important roles in preventing osteoporosis. Estrogen replacement therapy is often used to treat osteoporosis.

Bone loss is found to be up to 11 percent greater during the night. Calcium levels are also lowest during the night and may be affected by the concentration of the hormone, cortisol. These findings may lead to new hormone treatments for osteoporosis.

Cancer
Calcium deficiency may be linked to an increased risk of colon cancer. Research on animals and some epidemiological studies suggest that people with high calcium intakes are less likely to develop colon cancer. Research findings in humans are inconclusive, with some studies showing protective effects while others have not. The overall results seem to suggest that the protective effect of high calcium intake does exist but that it is not very marked.

The association between calcium intake and deaths from gastrointestinal cancer was assessed in a 28-year follow-up study of 2 591 Dutch civil servants and their spouses, aged 40 to 65 years. The researchers found that men and women who died of colorectal cancer had a lower average calcium intake compared to the rest of the population.8

Results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study published in 1998 showed that calcium can decrease the risk of rectal cancer. Researchers analyzed information from 34 702 postmenopausal women who responded to a mailed survey in 1986. After nine years of follow-up, 144 rectal cancer cases were identified. The results showed that high total calcium intake reduced the risk of rectal cancer.9 Other results from this study show a reduced risk of colon cancer in women with high intakes of calcium and vitamin D.

In a 1996 study, Harvard University researchers working on the Health Professionals Study assessed the links between calcium intake and colon cancer in almost 48 000 men aged from 40 to 75. They found that higher intake of calcium from foods and supplements was associated with a lower cancer risk until they adjusted their results to take other factors into account. They concluded that calcium may possibly mildly lower the risk of colon cancer.10 Data from the Nurses Health Study, which involved over 89 000 nurses, also showed a small reduced risk.11

Calcium may exert its protective effects by binding to toxic substances such as bile acids and fats and reduce the chance that these will cause cancerous changes in the gut. Calcium may also normalize the growth of cells in the intestinal wall, thus protecting against cancerous changes. Limited evidence suggests that low calcium intake may also increase the risk of breast, cervical and esophageal cancers.

Taiwanese studies done in 1997 and 1998 showed a protective effect both against gastric and colorectal cancers from high levels of calcium in drinking water.12,13

Blood pressure
Calcium metabolism seems to be altered in people with hypertension. Several studies suggest that low dietary intake of calcium is associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Some research suggests studies show that restriction of calcium increases, and supplementation with calcium lowers, blood pressure. Data from the US Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) showed that hypertensive people consumed 18 percent less dietary calcium than those with normal blood pressure.14

A review published in 1997 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that experimental data support the view that when adults meet or exceed the recommended dietary allowances of calcium, potassium, and magnesium, high sodium intakes are not associated with high blood pressure. Thus adequate mineral intake may protect against salt sensitivity. (See page 232 for more information.)15

Some evidence suggests that a woman who eats a low calcium diet in pregnancy may also increase the chances of her child suffering from high blood pressure.

Muscle cramps
When blood calcium levels drop below normal, the sensitivity of the nerves can increase, leading to muscle cramps. Pregnant women whose diets are deficient in calcium are at greatest risk of muscle cramps.

Teeth
Severe calcium deficiency can lead to periodontal disease (inflammation and degeneration of the bone and gum structures that support the teeth).


Sources
Good sources of calcium include milk and other dairy products, kale, kelp, tofu, canned fish with bones, peanuts, walnuts, sunflower seeds, broccoli, cauliflower and soybeans. Fortified foods such as fruit juices, breads and cereals are also common sources. Calcium in hard water and some mineral waters may be important dietary sources for some people.16

Calcium from milk and milk products is absorbed more easily than that from most vegetables, with the exception of dark green leafy vegetables such as kale, broccoli, turnip and mustard greens. A 1990 study showed that more calcium is absorbed from kale than from milk.17

Green leafy vegetables such as spinach contain large amounts of calcium but also contain oxalic acid which binds calcium and prevents it from being absorbed. Insoluble fiber, such as that found in wheat bran, reduces calcium absorption; but soluble fiber, such as that found in psyllium and fruit pectins, does not seem to affect absorption.18

While dairy products are good sources of calcium, there is concern that their protein content can increase the loss of calcium from bone. Results from the ongoing Nurses Health Study suggest that drinking lots of milk and other dairy foods high in calcium does not protect older women against bone fractures. Researchers analyzed the diets of over 77 000 participants in the study and looked at the rates of bone fractures. Results showed that women who drank two or more glasses of milk per day had around a 45 percent increased risk of hip fracture and a 5 percent increased risk of forearm fracture compared to women who drank one glass or less per week. There was also no drop in risk with intake of calcium from other dairy foods.19

In another study done in 1995 at the University of California at Berkeley, researchers assessed the effect of calcium supplementation and drinking milk on pre-eclampsia in over 9000 pregnant women. Results showed that women who drank two glasses of milk per day had the lowest risk. The risk for those drinking one glass of milk per day was similarly low but the risk for those drinking less than one glass of milk per day was substantially higher. Women drinking three or more glasses of milk per day also showed increased risk as did those drinking four or more glasses per day.20

A varied diet which includes nondairy sources of calcium is likely to be more beneficial in protecting against osteoporosis and other disorders of calcium deficiency.

Almonds, blanched 
¼ cup 89 mg
Cauliflower 
½ cup 10 mg
Fruit yogurt 
1 tub 338 mg
Milk chocolate 
1 bar 84 mg
Milk, whole 
1 cup 291 mg
Soybeans 
1 cup 55 mg
Baked beans, canned 
1 cup 127 mg
Cheddar cheese 
1 slice 204 mg
Honeydew melon 
1 cup, diced 10 mg
Milk, dry, nonfat 
¼ cup 377 mg
Peanuts 
1/2 cup 134 mg
Tahini paste 
1 tbsp 64 mg
Brazil nuts 
½ cup 123 mg
Crab meat, canned 
1 cup, drained 136 mg
Kale, cooked 
1 cup 94 mg
Milk, evaporated 
1 cup 658 mg
Salmon, canned 
½ can 484 mg
Tofu 
½ cup 204 mg
Broccoli, cooked 
½ cup 36 mg
Figs, dried 
5 figs 135 mg
Kelp, raw 
2 tbsp 17 mg
Milk, nonfat 
1 cup 297 mg
Sardines, canned, tomato sauce 
5 sardines 455 mg
Walnuts 
1 cup, shelled 94 mg

Recommended dietary allowances
Calcium requirements vary throughout a person’s lifetime, with greater needs during periods of rapid growth and later in life. Due to mounting evidence that people are not getting enough calcium to prevent osteoporosis and other bone diseases, in 1997 the US government raised the recommendations for how much calcium people should consume every day.

Recommended intakes for pregnant and breastfeeding women are no longer greater than those for other women. This is partly based on recent studies which suggest that changes in calcium metabolism and absorption during pregnancy and breastfeeding are enough to meet the extra demands placed on a woman’s body by her baby. A 1998 British study suggests that bone mineral density changes seen during breastfeeding seems to be unrelated to dietary calcium intake.21

Two randomized, placebo-controlled trials of calcium supplementation were done on new mothers in 1997 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Researchers tested the effect of 1000 mg of calcium per day on bone density, measured at enrolment and after three and six months. The results showed no effect of either lactation or calcium supplementation on bone density in the forearm, and also no effect of calcium supplementation on the calcium concentration in breast milk.22

In another study published in 1998, researchers studied calcium metabolism in 14 pregnant women from before conception to five months after their periods restarted. When the women were pregnant the increased needs were met by improved absorption, and then during the early breastfeeding period calcium excretion decreased. Some calcium was drawn from bone but this was recovered after menstruation restarted, although not to pre-pregnancy levels.23

The women involved in this study were all consuming adequate levels of calcium and it is possible that women whose calcium intake is lower than 1300 mg per day may benefit from extra calcium or supplements.

USA
Men 1000 mg
(14-18) 1300 mg
(over 50) 1200 mg
Women 1000 mg
(14-18) 1300 mg
(over 50) 1200 mg
Pregnancy 1000 mg
(14-18) 1300 mg
Lactation 1000 mg
(14-18) 1300 mg
 
UK
Men 700 mg Women 700 mg
 
Australia
Men 800 mg Women 800 mg
(post menopause) 1000 mg
Pregnancy 1100 mg Lactation 1300 mg

The tolerable upper intake level for children over the age of one and adults has been set at 2500 mg per day.


Supplements
Several dietary studies suggest that in many population groups, calcium intake is inadequate, particularly in women. As few as 10 percent of elderly people are getting enough calcium to prevent bone loss and are likely to benefit from supplements. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, adolescent girls, postmenopausal women and vegans may also benefit.

What type to take
Calcium supplements are among those most often prescribed by doctors as calcium deficiency is relatively common. They contain different amounts of calcium and are available in various forms including calcium carbonate (which contains 40 percent calcium), calcium aspartate, calcium citrate (21 percent calcium), calcium gluconate (9 percent calcium) and calcium lactate (13 percent calcium). While multivitamins do contain some calcium, the amount is not usually sufficient to meet daily requirements and separate calcium supplements are more useful.

Bonemeal, dolomite and oyster shells are common sources of calcium, but they should be avoided as they may be contaminated with lead and cadmium, which can be toxic. Antacids are also good sources of calcium, but those containing aluminum or sodium should be avoided as aluminum inhibits calcium absorption and sodium can raise blood pressure. Calcium citrate, which is an acidified form of calcium supplement, is absorbed better than calcium carbonate.24 This is particularly important in older people who have low stomach acid. Calcium lactate and calcium aspartate are also well-absorbed. Calcium carbonate may cause side effects such as nausea, gas and constipation; but taking it in divided doses with meals may reduce these side effects and improve absorption.25

When to take calcium supplements
Absorption of calcium from supplements is considerably reduced in people who have low stomach acid unless the supplements are taken with food. In general, it seems that calcium supplements are better absorbed if they are taken with a meal, although this depends on the type of food eaten at the meal, for example, less calcium will be absorbed if supplements are taken with foods high in calcium, insoluble fiber and oxalates. A 1989 study showed that a light meal improved calcium absorption from milk, calcium carbonate and calcium-citrate-malate sources.26 However, calcium may decrease the absorption of other minerals such as zinc. Some calcium supplements can interfere with iron absorption, although this does not seem to be the case with calcium citrate and calcium ascorbate as they are acidic.

Some experts advise taking two-thirds of the daily calcium dose at bedtime and the rest in the morning. Others recommend dividing the dose into four parts; i.e. with meals and at bedtime.27 As bone loses calcium at night, some experts recommend taking supplements then to maintain blood calcium levels.

Calcium and magnesium
If you take a calcium supplement, you should also take a magnesium supplement. This helps to avoid constipation and to balance the effect of calcium on the electrical impulses in the nerves and muscles. Calcium and magnesium work together as mild neuromuscular relaxants. Some experts recommend taking calcium and magnesium in a 2:1 ratio while others suggest 1:1.


Toxic effects of excess intake
Toxic effects are rare as the body can excrete excess calcium with doses up to 2500 mg per day considered safe. Some people may suffer constipation at these doses. Daily intakes above 2500 mg may cause kidney stones and other problems. At very large doses, such as 25 000 mg, vomiting, nausea and loss of appetite can occur. If taken with high levels of vitamin D for long periods, deposition of calcium in the kidneys, heart and other soft tissues can occur. High levels may also impair vitamin K metabolism, reduce iron and zinc absorption, and affect the activity of neurons in the brain which control mood and emotion.

Calcium forms part of the plaque laid down in the arteries in atherosclerosis, although this problem is likely to be due to abnormalities in calcium metabolism rather than excess dietary calcium.

Results from the Health Professionals Follow-Up study which involved

47 781 men suggest that high calcium intakes from both food and supplements increase the risk of prostate cancer.28


Therapeutic uses of supplements

Osteoporosis
Research suggests that taking calcium supplements later in life can slow the bone loss associated with osteoporosis. Treatment which combines calcium and estrogen is likely to be better at building bone than treatment with estrogen alone, according to a review published in 1998 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Researchers analyzed the results of 31 studies and found that the postmenopausal women who took estrogen alone had an average increase in spinal bone mass of 1.3 percent per year, while those who took estrogen and calcium supplements had an average increase of 3.3 percent. Increases in bone mass in the forearm and upper thigh were also greater in women taking supplements. The added benefit from the calcium was seen when the women increased their intake from an average of 563 mg per day to 1200 mg per day.29

Another study done in 1997 at Tufts University in Boston showed reduced rates of bone loss and fractures in men and women over 65 who took calcium and vitamin D supplements. Researchers assessed the effects of calcium (500 mg per day) and vitamin D (700 IU per day) on 176 men and 213 women aged 65 years or older. After a three-year period, those taking the supplements had higher bone density at all body sites measured. The fracture rate was also reduced by 50 percent in those taking the supplements.30

Calcium supplements have also been shown to increase bone mass in children, although a 1996 study done in Hong Kong found that when the supplements were stopped, the beneficial effects disappeared.31

Protection against the side effects of corticosteroid drugs

One of the side effects of corticosteroid drugs, which are often used to treat arthritis, asthma and other chronic diseases, is a loss of bone mineral density and therefore an increased risk of osteoporosis.

In a study done in 1996 at the Medical College of Virginia, researchers showed that calcium and vitamin D supplements can help prevent this loss. In the two-year study, 96 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 65 of whom were taking corticosteroid drugs, were given 1000 mg calcium and 500 IU vitamin D per day or placebo. The researchers analyzed the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and femur for one year. In those patients taking corticosteroid drugs and placebo losses of bone mineral density were seen. In those taking the supplements, gains were seen and in those not taking corticosteroids, the supplements did not appear to affect bone mineral density.32

Blood pressure
Some studies have shown that calcium supplements lower blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patients, while others have shown no effect.

In an eight-week randomized, placebo-controlled study done in 1985 in the US, researchers assessed the effect of 1000 mg per day of calcium supplements on the blood pressure of 48 people with hypertension and 32 without. Compared with placebo, calcium significantly lowered both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, but only in those with high blood pressure.33

Results from the University of Pittsburgh Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) showed calcium supplements (100 mg per day) to have little effect on blood pressure. The participants were healthy adult men and women (both white and African American) aged 30 to 54 years with high-normal diastolic blood pressure. However, the supplements did seem to lower blood pressure in white women, who are at particular risk of low calcium intakes.34 Supplements may be beneficial in cases where calcium intake is insufficient, which may be relatively common. Whether calcium can lower blood pressure in cases where there is no apparent deficiency is not clear. Increasing calcium intake may lower blood pressure by increasing the excretion of sodium and calcium supplements may be most useful in those who are salt sensitive. (See page 232 for more information.)

The results of a study, reported in 1997 in the British Medical Journal, suggest that women who take calcium supplements in pregnancy have children with lower blood pressures. Researchers measured the blood pressures of almost 600 children of women who had previously been involved in a double-blind trial of the effects of calcium on blood pressure during pregnancy. The results showed that, overall, systolic blood pressure was lower in the calcium group, particularly among overweight children.35

Muscle cramps
Calcium can be used to control the incidence of leg cramps in pregnant women, possibly by decreasing nerve irritability. It has also been used to reduce the incidence of menstrual cramps and symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome.

Pre-eclampsia
Use of calcium supplements during pregnancy may lower a woman’s risk of pre-eclampsia, a disorder which occurs in one in every 20 pregnant women. Symptoms of pre-eclampsia are high blood pressure, headache, protein in the urine, blurred vision and anxiety. It can lead to eclampsia, a seizure disorder which can cause complications with pregnancy and even death. There is some evidence that abnormalities in calcium metabolism are involved in pre-eclampsia. Many pregnant women do not consume enough calcium to ensure optimal blood pressure regulation and the results of several clinical trials have suggested that calcium supplements reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia.36

A 1996 analysis of clinical trials which looked at the effects of calcium intake on pre-eclampsia and pregnancy outcomes in 2500 women found that those who consumed 1500 to 2000 mg of calcium supplements per day were 70 percent less likely to suffer from high blood pressure in pregnancy.37

However, in a study published in 1997 in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that calcium supplements did not prevent pre-eclampsia. The study, the largest ever done on the subject, involved 4589 healthy, first-time mothers. Half of the subjects received 2000 mg of calcium per day and the other half received a placebo. The researchers then assessed the incidence of high blood pressure and protein excretion in the urine. No significant differences in the groups were found. Supplements did not reduce other complications associated with childbirth or increase the incidence of kidney stones.38

The results of this study still leave open the possibility that calcium supplements may be useful as the women included in the study were already consuming higher than average levels of calcium than is typical even before they took the supplements. Women at high risk of pre-eclampsia were also not included in the investigation.

Other uses
Calcium supplements can be useful in congestive heart failure as they increase the contractility of heart muscle. Calcium salts are used intravenously to treat heart attack associated with high potassium and magnesium levels and low calcium levels. They are also used in cases of calcium antagonist drug overdose.

Calcium supplements have also been used to treat allergy complaints, depression, panic attacks, arthritis, hypoglycemia, muscle and joint pains. Calcium salts are a major component of antacids which are used to treat indigestion and ulcers. Taken with magnesium, they may have neuromuscular relaxing effects and may be useful in insomnia.


Interactions with other nutrients
Calcium and phosphorus work together to form healthy bones and teeth. High phosphorus intakes lead to increased calcium excretion. The intake ratio for calcium to phosphorus should be 1:1.

Calcium competes with zinc, manganese, copper and iron for absorption in the intestine, and a high intake of one mineral can reduce absorption of the others. This is of particular concern in the case of iron. Calcium reduces both heme and nonheme iron absorption.39 (See page 251 for more information.) The practical implications of the inhibitory effect of calcium mean that addition of milk or cheese to common meals such as pizza or hamburgers can reduce iron absorption by 50-60%. Some experts recommend eating foods that provide most of the daily iron intake at a different time to foods which provide most of the daily calcium intake. Thus it is advisable to reduce the intake of dairy products with the main meals providing most of the dietary iron, especially for children, teenagers and women of childbearing age whose iron requirements are high.40

This interaction is also a concern in relation to supplements as calcium and iron are both commonly recommended for women. A study done in 1990 on postmenopausal women showed that calcium supplements decrease iron absorption from supplements and from food sources. Orange juice helped to avoid this reduction in absorption probably because it contains citric and ascorbic acids, both of which are known to enhance iron absorption.41 However, calcium citrate does not appear to reduce iron absorption.42

Lead absorption is blocked by calcium in the intestines. Boron supplementation may reduce the excretion of calcium. Aluminum-containing antacids can inhibit calcium absorption. It is unclear whether magnesium inhibits calcium absorption. A 1994 study found no effect of magnesium supplements on calcium absorption.43 Calcium supplements have been shown to decrease zinc absorption.44 High calcium diets are being increasingly recommended to prevent osteoporosis and a 1997 study done in the US showed that high calcium diets decreased zinc absorption by 50 percent and may raise requirements.45

Boron seems to be beneficial to calcium metabolism. Calcium interacts with several vitamins, in particular, vitamin D and vitamin K.

Interactions with drugs
Some diuretics, corticosteroids and antidepressants can lead to calcium deficiency. Calcium supplements may decrease the effectiveness of tetracycline antibiotics; the anticonvulsant, phenytoin; and aspirin; and should not be taken at the same time as any of these drugs.

Cautions
Calcium supplements should not be used in people who have impaired kidney function, cardiac arrhythmias, a history of kidney or bladder stones, constipation or dehydration. The calcium citrate form of supplement is less likely to cause kidney stones than calcium carbonate.


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32 Buckley LM; Leib ES; Cartularo KS; Vacek PM; Cooper SM. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med, 1996 Dec, 125:12, 961-8

33 McCarron DA; Morris CD Blood pressure response to oral calcium in persons with mild to moderate hypertension. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Ann Intern Med, 1985 Dec, 103:6 ( Pt 1), 825-31

34 Yamamoto ME; Applegate WB; Klag MJ; Borhani NO; Cohen JD; Kirchner KA; Lakatos E; Sacks FM; Taylor JO; Hennekens CH Lack of blood pressure effect with calcium and magnesium supplementation in adults with high-normal blood pressure. Results from Phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP). Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) Collaborative Research Group. Ann Epidemiol, 1995 Mar, 5:2, 96-107

35 Belizán JM; Villar J; Bergel E; del Pino A; Di Fulvio S; Galliano SV; Kattan C. Long-term effect of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on the blood pressure of offspring: follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 1997 Aug, 315:7103, 281-5

36 Herrera JA; Arevalo Herrera M; Herrera S. Prevention of preeclampsia by linoleic acid and calcium supplementation: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol, 1998 Apr, 91:4, 585-90

37 Bucher HC; Guyatt GH; Cook RJ; Hatala R; Cook DJ; Lang JD; Hunt D. Effect of calcium supplementation on pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA, 1996 Apr, 275:14, 1113-7

38 Levine RJ; Hauth JC; Curet LB; Sibai BM; Catalano PM; Morris CD; DerSimonian R; Esterlitz JR; Raymond EG; Bild DE; Clemens JD; Cutler JA. Trial of calcium to prevent preeclampsia. N Engl J Med, 1997 Jul, 337:2, 69-76

39 Hallberg L; Brune M; Erlandsson M; Sandberg AS; Rossander-Hultén L. Calcium: effect of different amounts on nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr, 1991 Jan, 53:1, 112-9

40 Pak CY; Stewart A; Haynes SD Effect of added citrate or malate on calcium absorption from calcium-fortified orange juice. J Am Coll Nutr, 1994 Dec, 13:6, 575-7

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43 Spencer H; Fuller H; Norris C; Williams D. Effect of magnesium on the intestinal absorption of calcium in man. J Am Coll Nutr, 1994 Oct, 13:5, 485-92

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Jurak Classic Whole Body Tonic is a dietary supplement, not a drug and Jurak Corporation does not claim any drug or treatment effects for its product.
Jurak Classic Whole Body Tonic is not intended to, and will not, diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.  These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
However, JC Tonic ® supplements the body's nutritional needs and can affect the structure and/or function of your body in various nutritional ways.  These individual testimonials, like others you may hear, reflect truthful, actual experiences of customers who took JC Tonic.  But they are not typical experiences and they do not constitute scientific evidence that the J C Tonic will have the same effect in others, including yourself.  Remember that these statements do not represent the typical JC Tonic drinker and you should not expect to achieve any of these same results. 

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